Naval Aviation Warfighting Development Center (NAWDC) at Naval Air Station Fallon is the center of excellence for naval aviation training and tactics development. NAWDC provides service to aircrews, squadrons and air wings throughout the United States Navy through flight training, academic instructional classes, and direct operational and intelligence support. The command consists of more than 120 officers, 140 enlisted and 50 contract personnel. NAWDC flies and maintains F/A-18C/D Hornets, F/A-18E/F Super Hornets, E/A-18G Growlers, F-16 Fighting Falcons and MH-60S Seahawk helicopters.
Prior to June 2015, NAWDC was known as Naval Strike and Air Warfare Center (NSAWC) which was the consolidation of three commands into a single command structure on July 11, 1996. NSAWC was comprised of the Naval Strike Warfare Center (STRIKE "U") based at NAS Fallon since 1984, and two schools from NAS Miramar, the Navy Fighter Weapons School (TOPGUN) and the Carrier Airborne Early Warning Weapons School (TOPDOME).
NAWDC is the Navy's center of excellence for air combat training and tactics development. NAWDC trains naval aviation in advanced Tactics, Techniques and Procedures (TTP) across assigned combat mission areas at the individual, unit, integrated and joint levels, ensuring alignment of the training continuum; to set and enforce combat proficiency standards; to develop, validate, standardize, publish and revise TTPs. In addition, NAWDC provides subject matter expertise support to strike group commanders, numbered fleet commanders, Navy component commanders and combatant commanders; to lead training and warfighting effectiveness assessments and identify and mitigate gaps across all platforms and staffs for assigned mission areas as the supported WDC; collaborate with other WDCs to ensure cross-platform integration and alignment. NAWDC's individual mission requirements include:
N2: The Information Warfare Directorate at NAWDC is responsible for ensuring command leadership and personnel are provided the full capabilities of the Information Warfare Community (IWC) to support combat readiness and training of Carrier Air Wings and Strike Groups. The Directorate is comprised of four areas of focus: Air Wing Intelligence Training, the Maritime ISR (MISR) Cell, Targeting, and Command Information Services (CIS). The Air Wing Intelligence Training Division is responsible for training CVW Intelligence Officers and Enlisted Intelligence Specialists in strike support operations. The MISR Cell is tasked with providing ISR integration into Carrier Air Wing training as well as qualifying MISR Package Commanders and Coordinators. The Targeting Division trains and certifies all CVW Targeteer personnel and provides distributed reach-back support for deployed units worldwide regarding target development. CIS provides cyber security and computer network operations for the entire NAWDC enterprise.
N3: NAWDC Operations department (N3) is responsible for the coordination, planning, synchronization, and scheduling for the operations of the command, its assigned aircraft, and airspace and range systems within the Fallon Range Training Complex (FRTC).
N4: NAWDC's Maintenance Department is the heart of training for all the NAWDC schoolhouses. Maintenance's focus is providing mission-ready fleet and adversary aircraft configured with required weapons and systems for all training evolutions. We support day to day training missions with the F-16 Viper, F-18 Hornet and Super Hornet, EA-18G Growler, E-2C Hawkeye and the MH-60S Seahawk; conducting scheduled and un-scheduled maintenance on 39 individual aircraft. These aircraft and weapon systems are the foundation for all other NAWDC Department's training syllabi.
N5: Responsible for training Naval aviation in advanced Tactics, Techniques and Procedures (TTP) across assigned combat mission areas at the individual, unit, integrated and joint levels, ensuring alignment of the training continuum; to set and enforce combat proficiency standards; to develop, validate, standarize, publish and revise TTPs. Also provides subject matter expertise support to strike group commanders, numbered fleet commanders, Navy component commanders and combatant commanders; to lead training and warfighting effectiveness assessments and identify and mitigate gaps across all platforms and staffs for assigned mission areas as the supported WDC; and collaborates with other WDCs to ensure cross-platform intergration and alignment.
NAWDC's Joint Close-Air Support (JCAS) Division continues to answer the needs of current theater operations with increased production of Joint Terminal Attack Controllers Course (JTACC). NAWDC JCAS primarily trains Naval Special Warfare and Riverine Group personnel, but has this year also trained U.S. Army Special Operations, U.S. Marine Corps Air and Naval Gunfire Liaison Officers, international personnel, as well as U.S. Navy Fixed and Rotary Wing Forward-Air Controller (Airborne) personnel. NAWDC's JCAS branch is the U.S. Navy's designated representative to the Coalition JCAS Executive Steering Committee, and is a recognized authority on kinetic air support to information warfare (IW), tactical precision targeting, and digitally aided CAS.
N6: Carrier Airborne Early Warning Weapons School (CAEWWS), also referred to as TOP DOME, is the E-2 weapon school and responsible for Airborne Tactical Command and Control advanced individual training via the Hawkeye Weapons and Tactics Instructors (HEWTIs) class. CAEWWS is also responsible for development of community Tactics, Technique and Procedures and provides inputs to the acquisition process in the form of requirements and priorities for research and development (R&D), procurement, and training systems. CAEWWS works closely to support other Warfare Development Centers and Weapons Schools; such as the Surface and Mine Warfighting Development Center's Integrated Air Defense Course (IADC) and Integrated Air and Missile Defense WTI Integration Course (IWIC). Other functions include support to advanced integrated fleet training by way of WTI augmentation to the N5/STRIKE Department for CVW integrated training detachments; also known as Air Wing Fallon Detachment and support of squadron activities.
N7: In the early stages of the Vietnam War, the tactical performance of Navy fighter aircraft against seemingly technologically inferior adversaries, the North Vietnamese MiG-17, MiG-19, and MiG-21, fell far short of expectations and caused significant concern among national leadership. Based on an unacceptable ratio of combat losses, in 1967, ADM Tom Moorer, Chief of Naval Operations, commissioned an in-depth examination of the process by which air-to-air missile systems were acquired and employed. Among the multitude of findings within this report was the critical need for an advanced fighter weapons school, designed to train aircrew in all aspects of aerial combat including the capabilities and limitations of Navy aircraft and weapon systems, along with those of the expected threat.
In 1969, the United States Navy Fighter Weapons School (TOPGUN) was established to develop and implement a course of graduate-level instruction in aerial combat. Today, TOPGUN continues to provide advanced tactics training for FA-18A-F aircrew in the Navy and Marine Corps through the execution of the Strike Fighter Tactics Instructor (SFTI) Course. TOPGUN is the most demanding air combat syllabus found anywhere in the world. The SFTI Course ultimately produces graduate-level strike fighter tacticians, adversary instructors, and Air Intercept Controllers (AIC) who go on to fill the critical assignment of Training Officer in fleet units.
N8: Navy's Rotary Wing Weapons School is composed of a staff of 25 pilots and aircrewmen who instruct the Seahawk Weapons and Tactics Instructor program; provide tactics instructors to fleet squadrons; maintain and develop the Navy's helicopter tactics doctrine via the SEAWOLF Manual; instruct the Navy's Mountain Flying School; provide high-altitude, mountainous flight experience for sea-going squadrons; and provide academic, ground, flight, and opposing-forces instruction for visiting aircrew during Air Wing Fallon detachments.
N9: The NAWDC Safety Department (N9) serves as the principal advisor to the Commander on all matters pertaining to safe command operations and is responsible for administering the following safety programs: aviation, ground, ergonomics, motor vehicles (personal, commercial), recreation, and on- and off-duty. Our goal is to eliminate preventable mishaps while maximizing operational readiness. We accomplish this by preserving lives, preventing injury, and protecting equipment and material.
N10: The US Navy's Airborne Electronic Attack Weapons School, call sign "HAVOC", stood up in 2011 to execute the NAWDC mission as it pertains to Electronic Warfare and the EA-18G Growler. HAVOC is comprised of highly qualified Growler Tactics Instructors, or GTIs, that form the "tactical engine" of the EA-18G community, developing the tactics that get the most out of EA-18G sensors and weapons. HAVOC's mission is also to train Growler Aircrew and Intelligence Officers on those tactics during the Growler Tactics Instructor Course. The Growler Tactics Instructor Course is a rigorous 12 week syllabus of academic, simulator, and live fly events that earn graduates the Growler Tactics Instructor designation - the highest level of EA-18G tactical qualification that is recognized across Naval Aviation. The Growler brings the most advanced tactical Electronic Warfare capabilities to operational commanders creating a tactical advantage for friendly air, land, and maritime forces by delaying, degrading, denying, or deceiving enemy kill chains.
N20: The Tomahawk Land Attack Missile (TLAM) Department provides direct support to U.S. Fleet Forces Command (USFFC) in the development and standardization of tactics, techniques and procedures for the employment of the Tomahawk weapon system. In addition, TLAM provides training to the CVW, fleet, and joint commands on TLAM capabilities and strike integration
4755 Pasture Rd. Bldg 465
Fallon, NV 89496-5000
The Fallon Range Training Complex (FRTC), located in the high desert of northern Nevada approximately 65 miles east of Reno, NV, is a set of well defined geographic areas encompassing a land area and multiple air spaces. It is used primarily for training operations, with some capability to support research and development, and test and evaluation of military hardware, personnel, tactics, munitions, explosives, and electronic combat.
The geographic scope encompasses NAS Fallon and near-by range training areas, Bureau of Land Management (BLM) rights-of-way, and 13,000 square miles of Special Use Airspace (SUA). The SUA is comprised of the 11 Military Operations Areas (MOAs), nine Restricted areas, ten Air Traffic Control Assigned Areas (ATCAAs), and an Aerial Refueling Route (ARR). Additionally, 17 Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) Military Training Routes (MTRs), three helicopter MTRs, and 14 Low Level Visual Flight Rules (VFR) MTRs transit, terminate in, or are in close proximity to the FRTC. The FRTC encompasses over 234,124 acres of land area including the Bravo-16, Bravo-17, Bravo-19, Bravo-20, Dixie Valley, and Shoal Site training areas.
The Navy administers only 234,124 acres of the 6.5 million acres of land under the FRTC airspace, while the remainder consists largely of public land managed by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM).
Oakland and Salt Lake Air Route Traffic Control Center (ARTCC) control the airspace within the FRTC, which in turn delegate scheduling and coordination authority to the Naval Strike and Air Warfare Center (NSAWC).
The FRTC is particularly significant to the Department of Defense (DoD) because of its unique training and tactics development capabilities, extensive instrumentation and target sets, live ordnance impact areas, and its capability to provide Basic, Integration and Sustainment Phase training of Naval forces in the Fleet Readiness Training Plan (FRTP).
The mission of the FRTC is to support Navy and Marine Corps tactical training by providing the most realistic strike and integrated air warfare training available, maintaining and operating facilities, and providing services and equipment to support the U.S. Pacific Fleet, U.S. Atlantic Fleet, U.S. Marine Corps Forces Pacific, U.S. Marine Corps Forces Atlantic, and other operating forces. Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation (RDT&E) operations are supported on a not to interfere basis.
Bravo-16. The B-16 area has typically saline soil characterized by extensive alkali flats and areas of patchy desert sand and sparsely vegetated by sagebrush. Located south of the Sheckler Reservoir and nine miles southwest of NAS Fallon at an elevation of 3,942 feet, B-16 includes two conventional bull’s-eye targets. The West Conventional Weapons Bull provides night lighting; the East Conventional Weapons Bull does not. At both targets, MK-76/BDU-33, MK-106/BDU-48, 2.75 FFAR (practice), and LUU-2 Paraflares are allowed.
Bravo-17. The most frequently used range at FRTC, B-17, is located west of Fairview Peak and south of U.S. Highway 50 and is contained within the Fairview NSAWC working area. The B-17 terrain is made up of the following: alkali flats in the northern section giving way to a rocky terrain along the west and east foothills, and patchy areas of desert sand sparsely vegetated by sagebrush along a gently sloping foothill at the southern extreme. The range is flanked on the west by the Sand Spring Mountains and State Highway 839 and on the east by Fairview Peak.
Located 25 miles east-southeast of NAS Fallon at an elevation of 4,153 feet, B-17 is split into an east (B-17E) and west (B-17W) component. These areas are further divided into a total of four surface areas. The B-17W target complex is comprised of No Drop Area (NDA) targets. The NDA targets include an Army compound target; Scud missile target, laser billboard; a bridge target; the West Petroleum, Oil, and Lubricant (POL) Facility target; and a motor pool target. Ordnance expenditure is forbidden in this area.
B-17E includes the Light Inert Impact Area, the Heavy Inert Impact Area, and the Live Impact Area. The Light Inert Impact Area includes a conventional weapons bull’s-eye target, a strafe target, an airfield complex, an air defense site, the East POL Facility, a Headquarters compound, the East Power Plant target, a helicopter tank target, a tank convoy and cave entrance target, a Scud missile launcher, a convoy target, a command and control center, a Close Air Support (CAS) target that simulates a below-ground POL, and another CAS target that represents a below-ground building. The targets in the Light Inert Impact Area collectively accommodate expenditure of the following ordnance types: MK-76/BDU-33, MK-106/BDU-48, Laser Guided Training Round (LGTR), BDU-45, LUU-2 Paraflares, and 2.75 FFAR (practice). Targets in the Light Inert Impact Area are Weapons Impact Scoring System (WISS) scored.
Forward Air Controller (FAC) platforms are designated areas from which approved artillery, small arms, and mortars are fired in support of CAS exercises. Each FAC position allows an unobstructed view of associated target areas. There is one FAC platform located within B-17 at the western edge of the Light Inert Area. There is also a helicopter Landing Zone (LZ) in addition to the DZ Bad Monkey within B-17 to support CAS training
The Heavy Inert Impact Area is in the northeastern corner of the B-17 complex. This area includes three targets: an Industrial Site target, a SAM site target, and a missile assembly target. All three of these targets accommodate expenditure of MK-76/BDU-33, MK-106/BDU-48, LGTR, MK-81 thru MK-84 practice ordnance, BDU-45, LUU-2 Paraflares, and 2.75 FFAR (practice). Targets in the Heavy Inert Impact Area are Weapons Impact Scoring System (WISS) scored.
The High Explosive impact (HEI) area is located in the southeastern section of the B-17 complex and allows expenditure of high explosive ordnance. The HEI area contains numerous tank vehicle targets and a camouflaged cave entrance. Targets in the HEI area are WISS scored.
Bravo-19. The B-19 area is comprised of alkali flats with areas of patchy desert sand sparsely vegetated by sagebrush. This target complex, which lies 16 nm south-southeast of NAS Fallon at an elevation of 3,882 feet, consists of a strafe target consisting of an acoustic transducer located behind an earthen berm, a HEI area with three distinct clusters of four M60 tank targets each, and a helicopter strafe area comprised of 14 different light armored vehicles. Night lighting is provided for the bull target. The HEI area is also designated as an alternate ordnance jettison area. There are two FAC Platforms in B-19 to support CAS training, one on the tower road and one at the east tower.
The targets within B-19 accommodate expenditure of MK-76/BDU-33, MK-106, BDU-48, LGTR, 2.75 FFAR (practice), LUU-2 Paraflares, BDU-45, .20mm TP, .25mm TP, 30mm TP, 7.62mm, 5.56mm, .50 cal (no HEI), 5.0 Zuni (practice), MK-80 series (live and practice Laser Guided Bombs [LGB]), 20mm HEI, and MK-77 (Napalm).
An open range for small arms (up to .50 cal) training is available at B-19 with firing lines located 50 feet north of the center tower area. The range includes a pistol/shotgun range, popup targets and a rifle/machine gun range.
Bravo-20. The B-20 target range is located in the northeastern section of the Carson Sink and lies within the Lone Rock NSAWC working area. Lone Rock, an igneous rock formation approximately 140 feet tall, is the center of this target area. The B-20 area is 31 nm north-northeast of NAS Fallon at an elevation of 4,040 feet at Lone Rock. The adjacent flats are at 3,890 feet above MSL. Drainage in the area surrounding this range is very poor, often leading to extensive areas of shallow surface water surrounding many of the target sites after heavy rains.
The Light Inert Impact Areas within B-20 include:
• Two conventional bull’s-eye targets with night lighting and WISS scoring
• Laser evaluation capabilities
• A laser-guided bomb target
• Two strafe targets
• A submarine target
• A broadcasting facility
• A radar van target
• Area 52, a simulated Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) facility
The Heavy Inert Impact Area within B-20 consists of an industrial site comprised of 22 large metal targets of various geometric designs. Adjacent to the Heavy Inert Impact Area is the Live Impact Area, which includes the Lone Rock target within an alkali flat, and the Hellfire target, a single, light-armored vehicle target. The primary ordnance jettison area at Fallon is the B-20 HE impact area.
The five Laser Target Areas (LTAs) aboard B-20 include the Live Impact Area, a submarine target, a laser-guided bull, and the North and South Conventional Bull targets. Delivery of inert Joint Direct Attack Munition (JDAM) is only authorized within the boundaries of the B-20 target range. The only authorized target for practice JDAM expenditure is the radar van target (B-20-12), which includes Sheridan Tank-1, Sheridan Tank-2, Sheridan Tank-3, and the Tactical Fuel Truck.
The targets within B-20 accommodate expenditure of MK-76/BDU-33, MK-106, BDU-48, LGTR, 2.75 FFAR (practice), LUU-2 Paraflares, BDU-45, .20mm TP, .25mm TP, 30mm TP, 7.62mm, .50 cal (no HEI), 5.0 Zuni (practice), MK-80 series (live and practice LGB), MK-77 (Napalm), JDAM, and AGM-114 (Hellfire).
Dixie Valley Training Area
The capability to provide forces with CSAR and non-ordnance CAS at FRTC is provided by approximately 80,000 acres of Navy-managed land within Dixie Valley. Four sub-areas make up the Dixie Valley training area:
• Leisy Ground Training Area
• Dixie Valley Settlement North
• Dixie Valley Settlement South
• Horse Creek
Dixie Valley Settlement South, situated on the valley floor, and the mountainous Horse Creek area, are the most frequently used areas within the Dixie Valley training area.
The 11 target clusters within the Dixie Valley training area are non-ordnance targets; lasing and ordnance drops are not authorized. The majority of these targets are found within Dixie Valley Settlement South, including Fort Apache–a 100,000 square foot complex of buildings, tracked and wheeled vehicles, tents, and a firing base for two 8-inch howitzers.
Within the Dixie North airspace working area, the Gabbs North MOA overlays the Dixie Valley Settlement and Horse Creek. The Gabbs North MOA extends from 100 feet AGL to FL180 but excludes restricted area R-4816N extending from 1,500 feet AGL to but not including FL180. Helicopter landings are permitted in the Navy-owned land within Horse Creek and Dixie Valley Settlement North and South at the aircrew’s discretion.
NSW and CSAR training operations are conducted on the 2,560-acre Shoal Site training range. Located south of US Highway 50 and west of B-17, the Shoal Site is public land withdrawn by the Department of Energy (DOE). The Military Lands Withdrawal Act of 1999 authorized a secondary withdrawal by the Navy for military use on the surface position of the DOE site.
Small Arms Training Range
Target range B-19 contains a small arms training area. This area includes a pistol/shotgun range, a zero range, an automated-record fire range, and a rifle/machine gun range. The rifle/machine gun range accommodates M2, M60, Squad Automatic Weapon (SAW), and Sniper rifle firing. Munitions calibers authorized for use here include:
• 12 gauge Shotgun
• .22 cal
• .357 cal
• .38 cal
• .30 cal
• .44 cal
• .45 cal
• .50 cal
• 40mm PR/TR B546
Electronic Warfare Complex (EWC)
The Fallon EWC consists of a series of pre-approved fixed and mobile site locations spread through most of the FRTC as depicted in Figure 2-6. The fixed sites are centered in the Dixie Valley, 23 nm east of NAS Fallon at an elevation of 4,170 feet, which is characterized as high desert, moderately vegetated by sagebrush and a variety of high desert type flora. The EWC integrates with TACTS and R-4816 to provide a variety of EC training capabilities. EC services and strike/attack scenarios can be customized for specific mission training and include both fixed and mobile threat capabilities. The system supports specialized EC training, such as CSAR helicopter penetration and reconnaissance training, and provides real-time and post-engagement feedback. The EWC assets include SAM/AAA simulators; a command, control and communication network and emulator; search radar systems; and Electronic Support Measures/Electronic Countermeasures (ESM/ECM) systems.
NSAWC Working Areas
For safety and training efficiency, FRTC airspace is subdivided into NSAWC Working Areas. Though not strictly SUA, these areas can be scheduled only through NSAWC. The eight primary NSAWC working areas and their respective subdivisions are:
• Berlin East/West, High/Low
• Callaghan North/South
• Cortez North/South, High/Low
• Dixie North/South, High/Low
• Edwards North/South, High/Low
• Lone Rock
The ‘Low’ subdivisions encompass airspace below 10,000 feet MSL, while the ‘High’ sub-areas extend from 11,000 feet MSL to the top of the MOA boundary. One or more of these areas can be scheduled as required. The NSAWC working area boundaries are shown in Figure 2-5.
The eight primary working areas can be grouped into three major combined areas–NSAWC 1, NSAWC 2, and CAS 17/19. NSAWC 1 includes Lone Rock (including R-4813A), Dixie North, Edwards North, Cortez, Callaghan North, and Stillwater Corridor. NSAWC 2 consists of Fairview (including R-4804A), Dixie South, Berlin, Kingston, O’Toole, Shoshone, Middlegate, Edwards South, Callaghan South, and R-4812. NSAWC 1/2 are designed to provide support for training events involving 6 or more aircraft that require significant lateral dispersion. Scheduled together, the NSAWC 1/2 areas can be utilized jointly in COMMODORE events, which involve 12 or more aircraft. COMMODORE is an airspace and communications scheduling package that provides blanket airspace clearance for large-scale exercises. The area covered by the COMMODORE airspace clearance includes NSAWC 1 and NSAWC 2. The third major combined working area is CAS 17/19, which includes Dixie South, B-17 or B-19, R-4812, and Berlin West.
Four corridors, each 5 nm in width, have also been defined by NSAWC to facilitate safe and orderly transit within the FRTC airspace. The four corridors are named Middlegate, O’Toole, Shoshone, and Stillwater.